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References


REFERENCES TO DEMONSTRATED EFFECTS OF INCREASED INTAKE OF PLANT STEROLS, CALCIUM, POTASSIUM, AND MAGNESIUM WHICH ARE BROUGHT ABOUT BY MULTIBENE

PLANT STEROLS

Plant sterol-fortified orange juice effectively lowers cholesterol levels in mildly hypercholesterolemic healthy individuals . Devaraj S, Jialal I, Vega-Lopez S. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2004 Mar;24 (3):e25-8. [Abstract]

Plant sterol and stanol margarines and health. Law, M. BMJ. 2000 Mar 25;320(7238):861-4.[Full text]

Consumption of tall oil-derived phytosterols in a chocolate matrix significantly decreases plasma total and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol levels . De Graaf J et al. Br J Nutr. 2002 Nov;88(5):479-88. [Abstract].

Safety aspects and cholesterol-lowering efficacy of low fat dairy products containing plant sterols. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2006 Jan 11.

The growing case for plant sterols. The Medical Post. March 08, 2005 Volume 41 Issue 10.

Plant sterols are efficacious in lowering plasma LDL and non-HDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic type 2 diabetic and nondiabetic persons. Lau VW, Journoud M, Jones PJ. Am J Clin Nutr. 2005 Jun;81(6):1351-8

 

INCREASED INTAKE OF CALCIUM, POTASSIUM AND MAGNESIUM

Lowering of elevated blood pressure / prevention of arterial hypertension
Preventive effect on osteoporosis
Helps to control obesity
Decreased absorption of dietary fats improves the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols
Prevention and decrease of the left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart (LVH)
Preventive effect on some types of stomach and bowel cancers
Beneficial effects in subjects with adult-type diabetes
Improvement of the therapeutic effects of blood pressure lowering drugs
Preventive and correcting effect on calcium, potassium and magnesium deficiency

 

Lowering of elevated blood pressure / prevention of arterial hypertension

Dietary Electrolytes and Blood Pressure - A Statement for Healthcare Professionals from the American Heart Association . Kotchen, T and McCarron, D 1998. Nutrition Committee. Circulation.(98)613-617 [Full text].

Effects on Blood Pressure of Reduced Dietary Sodium and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) Diet. Sacks FM, Svetkey LP, Vollmer WM, Appel LJ, Bray GA, Harsha D, Obarzanek E, Conlin PR, Miller ER 3rd, Simons-Morton DG, Karanja N, Lin PHS. 2001. New England Journal of Medicine. 344(1):3-10, January 4, 2001 [Abstract].

Dietary approaches to prevent and treat hypertension: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Hypertension: 2006; Vol.47, 296-308

Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets? Karppanen, H, Karppanen, P, Mervaala, E J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Dec;19 Suppl 3:S10-9.

Blood pressure responses to high-calcium skim milk and potassium-enriched high-calcium skim milk. J Hypertens. 2000 Sep;18(9):1331-9.

Joint Effects of Systolic Blood Pressure and Serum Cholesterol on Cardiovascular Disease in the Asia Pacific Region.  Circulation. 2005 Nov 29;112(22):3384-90.

 

Increased intake of potassium and magnesium

The effect of low-dose potassium supplementation on blood pressure in apparently healthy volunteers . Naismith DJ, Braschi A. Br J Nutr. 2003 Jul;90(1):53-60. [Abstract]

Blood pressure response to changes in sodium and potassium intake: a metaregression analysis of randomised trials . Geleijnse JM, Kok FJ, Grobbee DE. J Hum Hypertens. 2003 Jul;17(7):471-80. [Abstract]

Dietary magnesium intake and the future risk of coronary heart disease . Abbott RD et al. Am J Cardiol. 2003 Sep 15;92(6):665-9. [Abstract].

The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials . Jee SH et al. Am J Hypertens. 2002 Aug;15(8):691-6. [Abstract]

A potassium-, magnesium-, and l-lysine-enriched mineral salt. Cardiovascular and renal effects and interactions with antihypertensive drugs in the rat. Mervaala, E. 1995. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki.

Role of sodium, potassium, and magnesium in hypertension. Mervaala, E. et al. 1998. International Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science. 1. p. 155-162.

Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets? Karppanen, H, Karppanen, P, Mervaala, E J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Dec;19 Suppl 3:S10-9.

 

Increased intake of calcium

Long term observation in effects of potassium and calcium supplementation on arterial blood pressure and sodium metabolism in adolescents with higher blood pressure . Mu JJ et al. Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2003 Mar;37(2):90-2.[Abstract]

Diet and blood pressure - the paradigm shift. McCarron, D. 1998. Science. 281. p. 933-934.

Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets? Karppanen, H, Karppanen, P, Mervaala, E J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Dec;19 Suppl 3:S10-9.

 

Decreased intake of salt (sodium)

Salt, diet & health. MacGregor, G. & de Wardener, H. 1998. Cambridge University Press.

A potassium-, magnesium-, and l-lysine-enriched mineral salt. Cardiovascular and renal effects and interactions with antihypertensive drugs in the rat. Mervaala, E. 1995. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki.

Role of sodium, potassium, and magnesium in hypertension. Mervaala, E. et al. 1998. International Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science. 1. p. 155-162.

Why and how to implement sodium, potassium, calcium, and magnesium changes in food items and diets? Karppanen, H, Karppanen, P, Mervaala, E J Hum Hypertens. 2005 Dec;19 Suppl 3:S10-9.

 

Preventive effect on osteoporosis

Increased intake of calcium and decreased loss of calcium from the body and bones

Salt, diet & health. MacGregor, G. & de Wardener, H. 1998. Cambridge University Press.

Improvement of cardiovascular effects of metoprolol by replacement of common salt with a potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative . Mervaala, E. et al. 1994. British Journal of Pharmacology. 112. p. 640-648. [Abstract].

A potassium-, magnesium-, and l-lysine-enriched mineral salt. Cardiovascular and renal effects and interactions with antihypertensive drugs in the rat. Mervaala, E. 1995. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki.

Magnesium could reduce osteoporosis risk. Magnesium intake from food and supplements is associated with bone mineral density in healthy older white subjects. Journal of the American Geriatric Society (November, Vol 53, No 11, pp 1875-1880).

 

Helps to control obesity

Calcium mechanism for weight loss gets clinical support [Abstract]

Yogurt promotes fat loss [Abstract]

Decreased absorption of the high-energy fatty acids

Calcium intake and reduction in weight or fat mass. Teegarden D. : J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):249S-251S. [Abstract]

Normalizing calcium intake: projected population effects for body weight . Heaney RP. J Nutr. 2003 Jan;133(1):268S-270S. [Abstract]

Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Baron, J. et al. 1999. New England Journal of Medicine. 340. p. 101-107. [Abstract].

 

Decreased absorption of dietary fats improves the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols

Decreased endogenous synthesis of cholesterol

Effects of oral calcium upon serum lipids in man. Yacowitz, H et al. 1965. British Medical Journal. p. 1352-1354.

Foods and nutrition encyclopedia. Ensminger, A et al. 1994. 2nd edition. CRC Press, Inc. p. 291-304.

Lowering Cholesterol in High-Risk Individuals and Populations. Denke, M. & Grundy, S. 1995. Marcel Dekker, Inc., New York. p. 183-208.

 

Inhibition of the reabsorption of bile acids from the gut

Calcium supplements for the prevention of colorectal adenomas. Baron, J. et al. 1999. New England Journal of Medicine. 340. p. 101-107. [Abstract].

Colon cancer and dietary fat, phosphate, and calcium: a hypothesis . Newmark, H. et al. 1984. Journal of National Cancer Institute. 72. p. 1323-1325. [Abstract]

Drugs used in the treatment of hyperlipoproteinemias. Witztum, J. 1996. JG Hardman et al. (eds.) Goodman & Gilman’s The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, Ninth edition, McGraw-Hill, New York. p. 875-897.

 

Blockade of the harmful cholesterol raising feed-back mechanism

Reduction of serum cholesterol with sitostanol-ester margarine in a mildly hypercholesterolemic population . Miettinen, T. et al. 1995. New England Journal of Medicine. 333. p.1308-1312. [Abstract]

 

Prevention and decrease of the left ventricular hypertrophy of the heart (LVH)

Decreased intake of salt (sodium)

A potassium-, magnesium-, and l-lysine-enriched mineral salt. Cardiovascular and renal effects and interactions with antihypertensive drugs in the rat. Mervaala, E. 1995. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki.

 

Increased intake of potassium and magnesium

A potassium-, magnesium-, and l-lysine-enriched mineral salt. Cardiovascular and renal effects and interactions with antihypertensive drugs in the rat. Mervaala, E. 1995. Academic Dissertation, University of Helsinki, Hakapaino Oy, Helsinki.

 

Preventive effect on some types of stomach and bowel cancers

Decreased dietary concentration of salt (sodium) and increased dietary intakes of calcium

Salt, diet & health MacGregor, G. & de Wardener, H. 1998. . Cambridge University Press.

 

Beneficial effects in subjects with adult-type diabetes

Hypertension and diabetes mellitus . Jayakumar RV. J Indian Med Assoc. 2003 Apr;101(4):254-6. [Abstract]

Improvement in insulin sensitivity

Safety and effects of potassium- and magnesium-containing low sodium salt mixtures . Karppanen, H. et al. 1984. Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology. 6. p. S236-S243. [Abstract]

Improved insulin response and action by chronic magnesium administration in aged NIDDM subjects . Paolisso, G. et al. 1989. Diabetes Care. 12. p. 265-269. [Abstract]

Thiazide-induced glucose intolerance treated with potassium. Rapoport, C. 1964. Archives of International Medicine. 113. p. 405-408.

 

Improvement of the therapeutic effects of blood pressure lowering drugs

Decreased intake of salt (sodium)

Role of sodium, potassium, and magnesium in hypertension. Mervaala, E. et al. 1998. International Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science. 1. p. 155-162.

Increased intakes of potassium and magnesium

Role of sodium, potassium, and magnesium in hypertension. Mervaala, E. et al. 1998. International Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Science. 1. p. 155-162.

 

Preventive and correcting effect on calcium, potassium and magnesium deficiency

Diet and health: implications for reducing chronic disease risks. National Research Council. 1989. Committee on diet and health. National Academy Press. Washington, D.C. ISBN 0-309-03994-0. p. 749.

Suomalaiset ravitsemussuositukset. Finska näringsrekommendationer. Valtion ravitsemusneuvottelukunta / State Nutrition Committee of Finland: Komiteamietintö – Kommittébetänkande 1998:7.

Improvement of cardiovascular effects of metoprolol by replacement of common salt with a potassium- and magnesium-enriched salt alternative . Mervaala, E. et al. 1994. British Journal of Pharmacology. 112. p. 640-648. [Abstract].

Salt, diet & health. MacGregor, G. & de Wardener, H. 1998. Cambridge University Press.

Foods and nutrition encyclopedia. Ensminger, A et al. 1994. 2nd edition. CRC Press, Inc. p. 291-304.